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What are the characteristics of plastics? 2014-3-24 11:24:46  管理员

  Light weight , high strength . Lightweight plastic , the plastic generally have a density between 0.9 and 2.3 g / cc, only steel 1/8 to 1 / 4 of aluminum is about 1/ 2 , and the various lower foam density of about 0.01 to 0.5 g / cm between . Intensity is calculated per unit mass is called specific strength than the strength of reinforced plastics and some close to or even more than steel. E.g. alloy steel , tensile strength per unit mass of 160 MPa , and the glass fiber reinforced plastic of 170 to 400 MPa can be achieved .

  Excellent electrical insulating properties. Almost all plastics have excellent electrical insulating properties , such as very small dielectric loss and excellent arc resistance properties , these properties are comparable to the ceramic .

  Excellent chemical stability. General Plastics of chemicals have good corrosion resistance acid and alkali , especially chemical resistance of PTFE is better than gold , even the ability of " aqua regia " and other highly corrosive electrolyte corrosion, is called " plastics king . "

  Friction , good wear resistance . Most plastics have excellent anti-friction , wear-resistant and self-lubricating properties. Many plastic parts manufactured by rubbing the plastic is to use these features , while adding some solid lubricants and wear-resistant filler in plastics , can reduce the friction coefficient or further improve the wear resistance .

  Transparent and protective properties. Most of the plastic can be used as a transparent or translucent article , wherein the acrylic esters as transparent plastic like polystyrene and glass . Plexiglass chemical name is poly (methyl methacrylate) , a glass material used as aviation . Polyvinyl chloride , polyethylene, polypropylene and other plastic film with good light transmission and thermal properties , a large number of used agricultural film . Plastic with a variety of protective properties, they are used as protective security equipment products, such as plastic film , boxes, barrels, bottles.

  Shock absorption, excellent performance silencer . Some plastics pliable and resilient , when it is subjected to external mechanical shock and vibration frequent , internally generated viscous friction , the mechanical energy is converted into heat , therefore , be used as damping sound deadening material engineering . For example, the production of plastic bearings and gears reduce noise , a variety of foam cushioning is excellent sound deadening material widely used .

  The excellent performance of the plastic , it has a wide range of applications in industrial and agricultural production and people's daily lives ; it from the past as a substitute for metal, glass, ceramics, wood and fiber and other materials, which became the cutting edge of modern life and industrial indispensable material .

  However , plastic is also inadequate . For example , higher heat resistance than metal materials is poor, only a temperature generally in the following plastic 100 ℃, about a few 200 ℃ use ; plastic thermal expansion coefficient of metal 3 to 10 times better than a large , easily affected by temperature changes in the dimensional stability sex ; under load , the plastic will flow slowly stickiness or deformation, i.e., creep ; Furthermore, the plastic in the atmosphere, sunlight , prolonged stress or some qualitative effects of aging will occur , and so deterioration in performance . These shortcomings affect more or less plastic or limit its application . However , with the development and in-depth study of plastic materials for the plastics industry , are being gradually overcome these shortcomings , a novel high performance plastics and all kinds of plastic composite materials are constantly emerging.

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